10 Film Adaptations to Watch at the BFI London Film Festival 2019 (LFF)

The 63rd BFI London Film Festival (LFF) features highly anticipated films from Noah Baumbach, Michael Winterbottom, Céline Sciamma, Robert Eggers and Marielle Heller (to name a few). It’s set to be a great year for original screenplays but there are some innovative and surprising adaptations lined up too: from Armando Iannucci’s The Personal History of David Copperfield to Václav Marhoul’s 35mm, black and white war drama, The Painted Bird. To help you find your way through this epic programme here’s my guide to the film adaptations screening at the festival between 2nd and 13th October and the novels that inspired them. If you’re waiting in long festival queues or grabbing a coffee between screenings, these are the books you need to have in your bag!

David Coperfield Film adaptation Dev Patel LFF

The Personal History of David Copperfield

Armando Iannucci’s adaptation of Charles Dickens’ immensely detailed novel is LFF’s opening night gala. Famed for his political satires (The Death of Stalin, In The Loop) and writing once again with long-time collaborator Simon Blackwell (Veep, The Thick Of It), Iannucci’s David Copperfield promises to be no ordinary costume drama. Dev Patel is cast as the titular hero in a refreshing move that flouts the conservative traditions of the genre. Speaking to Indiewire last year, Iannucci said: 

“I want it to feel real and present, even though it’s set in 1840 in London. I want it to feel immediate and current. And therefore I want the cast to be much more representative of what London looks like now, and I want a lot of the behaviour in the film to feel current and contemporary.”

 Worth a watch before the festival is Armando’s Tale of Charles Dickens, a one hour documentary made for the BBC in 2012. Here Iannucci explores the relevance of Dickens’ complex world, his humour and his darkness, in modern Britain. 

Waiting for Barbarians Johnny Depp Mark Rylance film adaptation LFF

Waiting for the Barbarians

This adaptation of J.M. Coetzee’s novel, Waiting For The Barbarians has one of the strongest casts at this year’s LFF. Starring Mark Rylance, Johnny Depp and Robert Pattinson, the film explores oppression in a fictional regime. Yet its story is increasingly relevant. Producer Andrea Iervolino told The Observer that Rylance, as The Magistrate, “plays someone who realises that the government was trying to scare the population by saying that ‘the barbarians are coming, bad people are coming, the invasion is coming’. Actually, the government was only instilling fear.” 

The screenplay is the first written by Coetzee himself and is directed by Ciro Guerra (Embrace Of The Serpent). 

Colour of outer space film adaptation

Color Out of Space

HP. Lovecraft’s short story about a strange meteor crash, The Colour Out of Space, has already been brought to the screen three times: in Daniel Haller’s Die, Monster, Die! (1965), Ivan Zuccon’s Colour From the Dark (2008) and Huan Vu’s German language film Die Farbe (2010). Now, Richard Stanley (Hardware, Dust Devil) revisits the story in what the LFF programmer Michael Blyth describes as “a thrilling combination of absorbing family drama and outré sci-fi madness”. According to Blyth its a “slick, stylish and suitably perverse interpretation of Lovecraft’s notoriously ‘unfilmable’ cosmic philosophies”. 

A trailer is not available yet but screenshots from the film are suffused with a swirling purple mist; a hypnotising, otherworldly, psychedelic glow. If you liked Jeff VanderMeer’s Annihilation or the 2018 film adaptation from Alex Garland, you should definitely give Color Out Of Space a look.

The Invisible Life of Eurídice Gusmão film adaptation LFF

The Invisible Life of Eurídice Gusmão

Eurídice is an unfulfilled housewife in 1940s Rio de Janeiro. When her sister returns after a failed elopement, the women try to escape their mundane lives. The adaptation of this debut novel from Martha Batalha won the Prix Un Certain Regard award at Cannes earlier this year. And the film’s critical acclaim onscreen seems set to eclipse the novel itself. Variety called it “high emotion articulated with utmost sincerity and heady stylistic excess,” while The Hollywood Reporter describes it as “a haunting drama that quietly celebrates the resilience of women even as they endure beaten-down existences”. 

Jojo Rabbit Taika Waititi film adaptation LFF

Jojo Rabbit

Taika Waititi’s controversial comedy-drama Jojo Rabbit has headline billing at the LFF. It’s based on the novel Caging Skies by Christine Leunens and follows a boy recruited into Hitler’s Youth. The novel has been celebrated for its emotional complexity but can Waititi, with his unique brand of zany comedy (What We Do In The Shadows, Hunt for the Wilderpeople), pull this off? We’ll have to wait and see. What we do know, is that Waititi has added the character of Hitler, who he plays as a figure in the boy’s imagination. Speaking to the Los Angeles Times, Waititi said: 

“To me, this movie feels like a cautionary tale… It’s not about something that happened all these years ago. It’s right on our doorstep now and we’re minutes away from this same [garbage] happening all over again.”

Jojo Rabbit promises to be the kind of radical adaptation that asks even more questions of its audience. Earlier this month it was reported that Disney, who acquired the film through the purchase of Fox Searchlight, could be worried that the film is “too edgy” and might “alienate Disney fans”. They just made it a must see.

The Painted Bird Film Adaptation LFF

The Painted Bird

Another tale about the Nazi occupation, The Painted Bird sees a young boy abandoned and alone wandering through Eastern Europe. The tonal opposite of Jojo Rabbit, director of festivals for the BFI, Tricia Tuttle describes the film adaptation as:

“rarely an easy watch, with scenes some will find distressing. A terrifying and highly relevant exploration of what humanity looks like when there is only vicious survival, with little space for compassion.”

 Written by Jerzy Kosinski in 1965, The Painted Bird was well received on its release but became mired in controversy in the 1980s when it was revealed that the literary account was not autobiographical (as had been believed) but fictional. Kosinski’s novel, Being There, had also been cribbed from another writer. Nevertheless, Kosinski’s work has a strong pedigree on screen. Being There took home an Oscar nomination and a win in 1980. “Shot in starkly beautiful 35mm black and white by Kolya cinematographer Vladimír Smutný,” says Tuttle, “The Painted Bird’s textures recall both the crispness of The Bicycle Thief and squalor of Aleksei German’s Hard to be a God.” The innovative trailer radiates horror, set almost entirely to the sound of heavy, rapid breathing. 

Earthquake Bird film adaptation LFF

Earthquake Bird

This murder mystery thriller starring Alicia Vikander is set to hit Netflix in November. LFF offers a rare opportunity to catch it on the big screen. 

Vikander plays Lucy Fly, an English woman in Tokyo accused of murder. In their review of the novel, The Telegraph says, with much relish, that Lucy “displays a self-sufficiency, a disregard for whether or not she is being amiable, which is death by a hundred snubs”. It will be interesting to see how the adaptation handles this strong first person narrator. Festival programmer, Kate Taylor, bills it as “a moody and intriguing update on 1980s psycho-sexual thrillers, shifting the emphasis onto the psychology of the female protagonist”. The film comes from Wash Westmoreland, the writer-director behind the female driven films Still Alice and Colette.

Piranhas film adaptation LFF

Piranhas

Gomorrah, a startling account of the Neoplitan mafia and the first book from investigative journalist Roberto Saviano, was adapted into an award winning film in 2008 and a television series in 2014. Now The Piranhas, Saviano’s novel about child gangs in Naples, comes to LFF. It’s directed by Claudio Giovannesi (Fiore, Alì Blue Eyes) with a screenplay written in collaboration with Maurizio Braucci (Gomorrah) and Saviano himself. 

Piranhas took home the Silver Bear for best screenplay at Berlinale where it also received a best film nomination for the Golden Bear. At LFF, it’s billed as “a teenage Scarface meets Romeo and Juliet”. And if that doesn’t make you want to see it, I don’t know what will.  

Martin Eden film adaptation LFF

Martin Eden

American writer Jack London is most famous for his novel The Call of the Wild. But Martin Eden, written just three years later in 1909, is said to be his most autobiographical. Martin struggles to rise out of poverty, through the class system, to be recognised as a member of the literary establishment. 

This is the first time Martin Eden has been adapted for the big screen and the action is transplanted to Naples in this Italian production (it’s the second film written by Piranhas’ Maurizio Braucci screening at the festival). 

Chief executive of Film London, Adam Wootton describes how the adaptation, “mixes drama with archive footage to create a unique fable that demonstrates the imaginative vision and creative skill of director Pietro Marcello”. Marcello’s 2015 film Lost and Beautiful featured in Indiewire’s critic poll of the top ten best undistributed films.  

The Bears' Famous Invasion film adaptation LFF

The Bears’ Famous Invasion

This animation, based on the Italian children’s book The Bears’ Famous Invasion of Sicily by Dino Buzzati, comes from the producers of The Red Turtle (2016). It’s directed by Italian illustrator Lorenzo Mattotti whose bright, clean 2D animation has a trace of nostalgia that befits the 1945 classic book.

Back then, Buzzati told a story of starving bears battling with humans before adopting human traits themselves. No surprise then, that it’s been likened to George Orwell’s Animal Farm. Retold in 2019 however, it could be the kind of film that sparks fierce debate. For instance, Jay Weissberg for Variety has already argued that: “The revised storyline… about how bears and humans clash, make amends, and then realize they’re too different to live together, can lead to unfortunate and inadvertent interpretations neither Mattotti nor the original author Dino Buzzati intended”.

Days of the Bagnold Summer film adaptation LFF

Also Screening…

Adaptations of the graphic novel Days of the Bagnold Summer (starring Rob Brydon and Tamsin Grieg) and the play Luce (starring Naomi Watts, Octavia Spencer and Tim Roth) are also screening at this year’s LFF. Foreign language adaptations of Laurence Olivier’s novel Ghost Town Anthology, Colin Niel’s Only The Animals and Anna Woltz’s My Extraordinary Summer With Tess should be on your radar too. Unfortunately, however, these novels aren’t currently available in English translations. And finally, this year’s closing night gala is Martin Scorsese’s The Irishman adapted from Charles Brandt’s true-crime biography I Heard You Paint Houses. The film has already set Twitter on fire with news of its three-and-a-half hour run time.

*The full LFF 2019 programme is available here.

Subscribe to The Film Version

* indicates required

The Film Version will use the information you provide on this page to be in touch with you and to provide updates and marketing. Please select all the ways you would like to hear from us:

You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking the link in the footer of our emails or by contacting us at natalie@thefilmversion.com.

We use Mailchimp as our marketing platform. By clicking below to subscribe, you acknowledge that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing. Learn more about Mailchimp’s privacy practices here.

Audiences: Money, Mass-Markets & Film Adaptation

Jane Eyre Film Adaptation carey Fukanaga Mia Wasiakowska

Ever wondered if readers and film audiences are really so different? Does the film industry’s profit motive mean pandering to mass audiences? And does the need to make big bucks affect the type of film adaptations that are made? Or even influence their content? In the first instalment of a two part feature I look at the demographics of readers and film audiences and explore how the mass-market influences the type of adaptations in production.

PART ONE: THE PROFIT MOTIVE

In the early 1970s George Bluestone’s seminal book Novels Into Film effectively kicked off film adaptation theory. ‘Big business has always treated the film as a commodity,’ he declared, ‘While a novel can sell 20,000 volumes and make substantial profit, the film must reach millions’.

Novel sales are not guaranteed, but authors’ advances are the result of carefully calculated projections and manufacturing costs are relatively predictable. By comparison, movie making continues to be an expensive business. In 2017 the average (median) budget for co-production films in the UK was £3.5 million. For inward investment features (ie. those features funded by international sources such as the US), this figure rises to £11 million. Even adaptations that appear relatively low-key – like Can You Ever Forgive Me and If Beale Street Could Talk – come with sizeable production budgets.

Exacerbating the film industry’s profit motive is the relatively short window in which movies can make back their costs. In 2017, research by the BFI revealed that while ‘television remained the most popular platform in the UK for watching film’, it is cinema-going that remains ‘the largest single revenue source for the film industry’. Novels can gain traction over a number of weeks and months, but a film’s financial success is largely determined by its opening weekend. Films that perform badly are quickly removed from multiplex timetables.

‘It is hard to conceive a more risky business than trying to produce a profitable film,’ says Dean Keith Simonton in his book Great Flicks. ‘It is telling,’ he says, ‘that Donald Trump… had originally planned to become a movie producer but eventually switched to the real estate business when he realised that it would be much more reliably profitable’.

Now a 2018 report for the Publishers Association claims that basing films on novels can help to reduce this risk in three main ways: by demonstrating the story has potential mass-market appeal; by helping to attract quality talent; and by providing a positive contribution to the marketing campaign. ‘Adapted material is concentrated among high-grossing films,’ claims the report, receiving ‘on average, higher critical acclaim’. But how is the profit motive driving the industry’s choice of projects? 

Who’s Watching? Film Adaptation Audiences

Let’s get technical for a moment. Statistics relating specifically to audiences of film adaptations are sparse, largely because these films cross-cut so many different genres and target groups. What we do know is that cinema-going audiences as a whole are skewed towards the younger, male population. In 2017, 28% of UK cinema audiences were aged 15-24 and 54% of these were male. Although this group continues to ‘outweigh those aged 55 or over by a factor of almost 3 to 1,’ says the British Film Institute in its 2018 Yearbook, cinema attendance amongst older audiences is growing. The over 45s now make up more than 20% of cinema audiences. And, in this group, women are much more evenly represented.

‘It is hard to pinpoint the reasons for this’ growth, says the report. But ‘we might have expected the audience profile in 2017 to have shown an increase in the proportion of 55+ cinema-goers… given the growth in both accessible and ‘silver’ screenings and the number of films released during the year with appeal to this demographic’. Indeed, the ‘silver screen’ or ‘grey pound’ genre began to gain serious traction at the turn of 2011/2012 with the release of Jane Eyre, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy and The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel claims the BFI. All are adaptions of novels. Could film adaptations actually be fuelling growth in this market? If so, demand for adaptations that reflect their particular preferences (for historical novels and dramatic features) is likely to increase as the ‘baby boomer’ generation reaches retirement.  

The Relationship Between Reading & Watching

Indeed, when we look at the 2018 films where the audience contained a higher than average proportion of people aged over 55, almost half were based on novels (see the results by clicking on the image below). A further three were based on non-fiction books. This shouldn’t surprise us. Statistics from Kantar Media found that those describing themselves as heavy readers (reading more than ten books a year) were 26% more likely to be over 65. By comparison, those aged 15-24 were 32% less likely to identify themselves in this way.

It follows that just one of the top ten 2017 films with a higher than average proportion of 15-24’s in their audience was based on a novel: Stephen King’s It. King is amongst a number of ‘go-to’ authors whose work comes with a near guarantee of box-office success. 

film audience and film adaptation audience demographics

As readers, 15-24s are almost twice as likely to choose fantasy and adventure novels and 59% more likely to choose sci-fi. The film industry recognises the preferences of its primary market and this is reflected in its spending. In 2018, while 46% of film adaptations (of novels or short stories) were dramas, only two – Fifty Shades Freed and 12 Strong – ranked in the top twenty for production budgets. They cost significantly less (at $55 million and $35 million respectively) than action adaptations of The Meg ($178 million), Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom ($170 million) and adventure Ready Player One ($150 million). It comes as no surprise then, that these genres brought home a bigger share of the worldwide box office (34% and 31% respectively) than the 11% share of drama.

Film adaptation box office earnings by genre

The action, adventure and thriller genres play to cinema’s strengths; to the unique selling point of cinema as an experience. It is perhaps unsurprising then, that it was blockbuster films with big budget special effects and a star cast that 49% of participants in the BFI’s Opening Our Eyes survey stated that they watched ‘most often’. ‘The spectacular visual and audio experience’ was an important factor in deciding whether to watch a film at the cinema for 39% of people, a preference that was strongest among younger audiences.

This no doubt contributes to the reimagining of classic literary characters in genres favoured by the youth market. In the last ten years, Sherlock Holmes, for instance, has respawned in an action franchise starring Robert Downey Jr and a comedy starring Will Ferrell. Adaptations that can be sold as 3D, 4DX or IMAX present studios with another opportunity to entice young audiences into the multiplex. Why wait for a film to become available online if this means missing out on one of its key draws?

The Importance of Story

Readers and cinema-goers are a diverse bunch, but there is much correlation between what individuals read and what they watch. Perhaps most importantly, readers and film-goers share a common interest in the arts. ‘A strong interest in film correlates with a stronger than average interest in many other forms of leisure and cultural pursuit,’ says the Opening Our Eyes report, ‘This seems to place film enthusiasts amongst the group in society most culturally and socially engaged’. 

Story, of course, is the lifeblood of both film and literature. Indeed, it is cinema’s biggest attraction. 56% of the survey’s participants said ‘story’ played an important part in their decision to visit. This makes film adaptations of the novel an extremely attractive proposition for producers. The Publishing Association uses academic research to claim that ‘films adapted from books tend to have a richer more fully-developed story to draw on, thus increasing the probability that the plot of the film is captivating for audiences’.

Whether or not you agree with their conclusions, the ability to capitalise on an existing fan-base can only be a boon for the film industry. In Part Two we explore both how the novel is used in film marketing to ‘bait’ audiences and how the desire for mass-market appeal can impact upon the content of adaptations themselves.

* Budgets and box office statistics from The Numbers

Subscribe to The Film Version

* indicates required

The Film Version will use the information you provide on this page to be in touch with you and to provide updates and marketing. Please select all the ways you would like to hear from us:

You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking the link in the footer of our emails or by contacting us at natalie@thefilmversion.com.

We use Mailchimp as our marketing platform. By clicking below to subscribe, you acknowledge that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing. Learn more about Mailchimp’s privacy practices here.

Home Comforts & Guilty Consciences in The Sisters Brothers & The Ballad Of Buster Scruggs

The Sisters Brothers and The Ballad of Buster Scruggs

Companion Pieces is a new series of 10-15 minute reads exploring cinematic and literary parallels. In this first instalment, I explore the links between Patrick deWitt’s novel The Sisters Brothers, Jacques Audiard’s recent film adaptation of the same name and the Coen brothers’ The Ballad Of Buster Scruggs. Taken together, these three journeys through the American west reveal how greed, grief and a guilty conscience can be soothed by the simple comforts of family, friendship and home. But the question of what lies beyond their collection of ironic deaths can only be answered by the Coens.

Patrick deWitt’s 2011 Booker shortlisted novel The Sisters Brothers is both a western adventure and a crime caper. Two accomplished killers, the Sisters brothers, travel from Oregon to California with instructions to murder a red-bearded prospector and supposed thief named Hermann Kermit Warm. 

Their journey involves many chance encounters with strange and tragic figures, setting up mysteries that are never resolved. In a landscape soaked in killing and death, the first of these characters, the ‘weeping man’, seems to embody the grief of the entire American west. The precise source of his suffering is never revealed but the book’s narrator, Eli Sisters, believes it has ‘made him insane’. 

Reading the novel’s peculiar chance encounters, my mind turned to the cruel and strange western landscapes of the Coen brothers’ True Grit. The minds behind Fargo and The Big Lebowski have often incorporated western tropes in their work but True Grit marked an overt and uncharacteristically straight foray into the genre. The film’s plot is remarkably faithful to the simple revenge story of Charles Portis’ source novel, but the addition of a scavenging medicine man – donned in a bear skin and emerging like an absurd predatory animal from the snowy vista with the decomposing body of an unknown man – underlines the distorted values of the west. “I will entertain an offer for the rest of him” says the wanderer. The human body is a commodity and one man’s loss is another’s gain.

Like the films of the Coens, The Sisters Brothers is soaked in a bleak, tragicomic sensibility. The novel’s brief encounters are injected with irony and wry observations; its supporting characters are often the victims of simple bad luck. When the Sisters brothers, Eli and Charlie, spend the night in a witch’s cabin Eli dreams that the old woman is pouring a ‘heavy black liquid’ into the mouth of his brother, Charlie. The next morning, the witch is gone but a strange string of beads is left hanging above the door. Fearing a curse, the brothers refuse to pass beneath it. This choice results in the slaughter of five men when Charlie Sisters climbs out of the cabin’s small window and attempts to steal their axe to make a larger opening for his brother. For these dead men it is a simple case of being in the wrong place at the wrong time. 

The Coens would make their own ruthless journey across the American west in the 2018 film, The Ballad Of Buster Scruggs. This, a collection of six unrelated stories tied together by the turning pages of a western adventure book, feels like an accidental, spiritual relative of The Sisters Brothers sharing not only its tone and atmosphere but many of its themes.

Both share a similar cast of ne’er-do-wells. There are robbers and swindlers and bounty hunters; trappers and chancers and prospectors. Each of the film’s six stories gives us just enough to satisfy our curiosity and build a potent impression of grief, anguish and (sometimes) hope. Like deWitt, the Coens encourage us to sympathise with their eclectic characters before fate often deals them a cruel blow. The absence of obvious connections and ‘back stories’ conjures the spirit of a journey filled with such fleeting encounters and, added together, the stories are much bigger than the sum of their parts.

“People are like ferrets or a beaver, all pretty much alike” says the loquacious trapper in the Ballad’s final segment The Mortal Remains. But the trapper’s listeners do not agree and instead set about a process of binary categorisation: “lucky and unlucky,” “hale and frail,” “townsman and trapper,” “upright and sinning”.

The chance encounters in Patrick deWitt’s novel add up to a bleak and tragic picture of the American west but this is drawn out and embodied in the characterisation of the contrasting brothers. While Eli can be hot tempered, he is also kind and generous, desiring little more than intimacy and home comforts. Charlie, by comparison, is trigger happy, impressed by power and money and ‘too lazy to be good’. ‘Our blood is the same,’ says Eli, ‘we just use it differently’.

While Charlie is out finding the axe to help Eli escape the witches cabin, Eli actually passes beneath the witches beads to save his horse from a bear attack. ‘It occurred to me,’ admits Eli later, ‘that I had crossed the threshold for a horse I did not want to save but Charlie had not done the same for his own flesh and blood’. The mysterious encounter is echoed in two otherworldly ‘Intermissions’ later in the novel, that suggest Eli’s good deed has left him ‘protected’ and Charlie cursed.

In his 2019 adaptation of deWitt’s novel, Jaques Audiard omits these peculiar supernatural events but homes in on the tangible differences between the brothers. Each scene works to compare and contrast them, exploring the fraternal bond that ties them together. Audiard’s is an affectionate take on the men, a warm tale of brotherly love overcoming all obstacles.

Audiard opens by establishing the brothers’ confused morality, setting up a redemptive journey. After shooting their way through a house full of men Eli (John C. Reilly) runs into a burning stable to rescue his horse but returns empty handed. When he asks Charlie (Joaquin Phoenix), rather remorsefully, “How many do you think we killed?”, it is unclear whether he’s referring to the men or the horses.

We first meet the novel’s Eli similarly tormented by the death of his horse in a barn fire at the end of their previous job:

“I was very fond of my previous horse and lately had been experiencing visions while I slept of his death, his kicking, burning legs, his hot popping eyeballs.”

Eli is given a replacement horse, a slow and overweight animal already named Tub, in partial payment for this work. This ‘trouble with the horses’ cleverly sets up Eli’s emotional journey – his reluctant but burgeoning relationship with Tub echoes his moral growth – and establishes a power imbalance between the brothers. Charlie takes the better horse and, along with his recent promotion to ‘lead man’, this threatens to fracture the brothers’ relationship.

That this ‘adventure’ arrives at the end of the brothers’ career amplifies its melancholy and allows deWitt to consider the role of choice, genetics and upbringing in the brothers’ current lifestyle. In drawing this out, Audiard makes much of the brothers’ relationship with their father. Charlie asks Eli if he is worried about “passing it on”, by which he means their father’s violence. This thread is echoed in newly invented conversations between Hermann Kermit Warm (Riz Ahmed) and the brothers’ scout, Morris (Jake Gyllenhaal), about their own fathers. 

Both the novel and its film adaptation are a journey home. It is their violence that prevents the brothers from returning to their mother, who will not have them until they have given up their grisly careers. Instead Eli searches for home comforts in the arms of women, refusing to pay for their company and instead winning their affection with kindness. He tries to change his appearance by brushing his teeth and losing weight. In Audiard’s film this sophistication ties him to the reformed and altruistic Morris. 

The comfort provided by human intimacy is also a recurring theme in the Coen’s The Ballad Of Buster Scruggs. In the segment Near Algodones a bank robber who has already cheated death once before looks upon a pretty girl before he is hanged. Later, in The Gal Who Got Rattled, marriage and companionship offer an escape from a life of hardship, loneliness and fear. That these comforts are snatched away from the characters in ironic twists of fate and luck, makes Ballad a near agonising experience. ‘Here is another miserable mental image I will have to catalogue and make room for,’ says the novel’s Eli on abandoning a malnourished urchin in a dead prospectors tent. Viewers of The Ballad Of Buster Scruggs may be inclined to agree with him. Many of the images it presents are truly wretched, the very worst of humanity and cruel fate.

But the Coens’ twists are more than mere stylistic inflections, revealing truths about the human experience. The Gal Who Got Rattled explores the old adage that “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself”, while the inscrutable traveller in Meal Ticket exposes our reluctance to accept and face human suffering. In this, the film’s most troubling segment, a quadriplegic orator (Harry Melling) is thrown over a ravine by his coachman and carer (Liam Neeson) when the audiences for his gloomy performances start to wane. He is replaced by the popular but intellectually bankrupt animal act, the ‘chicken pythagorean’. Both of these segments explore the struggles of dependents, one that similarly emerges through the women and children of deWitt’s The Sisters Brothers.

Much can be gleaned by the Coens’ choice of songs and poems. The material of the quadriplegic orator, which includes Shakespeare’s Sonnet 29 and Shelley’s Ozymandias, drags us deep into his despair:

“When, in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes,

I all alone beweep my outcast state,

And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,

And look upon myself and curse my fate,

Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,

Featured like him, like him with friends possessed,

Desiring this man’s art and that man’s scope”

His nightly performances are repeated in montage but their delivery becomes more impassioned when the orator is denied the intimacy of a female companion. In the cruel American west, such a connection is a rare and exquisite comfort.

If Eli Sisters has accepted the nourishing value of human intimacy, Charlie is still on a quest for gold and glory. The plot of The Sisters Brothers is caught up in the avarice of the gold rush, something the Coens’ similarly explore in the Ballads’ prospector segment All Gold Canyon. Here man plunders nature for financial gain, bringing violence and brutality into the calm and tranquil natural world; the ‘mighty sweep of earth’ where there was no trace of man. The ageing prospector is one of the film’s few characters to escape a cruel twist of fate, but it spells disaster for the natural landscape. The Sisters brothers own experiment with prospecting has devastating consequences for wildlife and the slaughter of a red-backed bear for the price placed on its pelt establishes a poignant connection with their red-bearded bounty, Hermann Kermit Warm.   

From the outset of his film adaptation, Audiard intercuts the action of the Sisters brothers with the action of Warm and their scout Morris. This solves a potential problem with the novel’s structure and point of view, which holds back the action relating to Warm and Morris until the final third (where the discovery of a journal illuminates it in flashback). This restructuring allows Audiard (who writes with long-time collaborator Thomas Bidegain) to expand the story of Morris and Warm and they use it to develop the novel’s subplot in which they embark on a prospecting gambit of their own. Audiard even invents a new motivation for this scheme: part of a much greater plan to start an ‘ideal society’. It is a romantic, near communist response to the west’s cruel and violent capitalism. 

In Audiard’s adaptation, the randomness of the novel’s chance encounters are rather weakly fashioned into a cause and effect plot that is, at times, hard to follow. Yet the film’s additions also work to highlight the novel’s essential themes, pushing the brothers homeward. This final act, in which the brothers join forces with Morris and Warm, is infused with the friendship, kindness and intimacy they have been searching for. Audiard conjures a final image so pure in its emotional truth that any fears we might have about their future dissolves into their embrace.

The Coens leave their six stories, and their thematic connections, open to audience interpretation. The film becomes our journey through the American west and, like Eli Sisters, we must reluctantly accept the cruelty of circumstance. There are many kinds of death says Eli: 

‘Quick death, slow death. Early death, late death. Brave death, cowardly death.’ 

We find all of them in The Ballad Of Buster Scruggs. Likewise, ‘True Grit,’ says Adam Nayman in his book The Coen Brothers: This Book Really Ties The Film Together, ‘is filled with corpses in various states of decay’. The religious (and litigious) motivations of 14 year old Mattie Ross pervade that earlier western. But, perhaps too afraid to consider the prospect of heaven and hell – or too guilty to consider their victims’ fates – the Sisters brothers attempt to stave off their own mortality with superstition. In their final segment of The Ballad Of Buster Scruggs, the Coens take us beyond death’s final curtain revealing what happens after the lethal pressing of the trigger.  

Ballad is bookended by transitions into the afterlife. Singing cowboy Buster Scruggs gains his wings, ascending to the heavens in the film’s first segment. Its last, titled The Mortal Remains, works both literally as a philosophical conversation between stagecoach passengers and metaphorically, as purgatory. This latter interpretation is underlined by the advancing sunset; the darkness bringing with it a sense of claustrophobia and dread borrowed from the horror genre. The coach driver, who will not “slow”, is eerily reminiscent of the grim reaper; death of course waits for no man.

In this light, the passengers’ conversation is particularly poignant. A bounty hunter describes his fondness for witnessing the moment of death, watching as the dying man tries to ‘make sense of it’. ‘Do they ever?’ asks one of the passengers, ironically unaware they are already dead. As the coach stops and the passengers disembark in the darkness, their reluctance to cross the threshold suggests they may finally understand their fate. The visual and tonal contrast with Scrugg’s slapstick comedy, clichéd ascent and upbeat song, When A Cowboy Trades His Spurs For Wings, is formidable. The film has taken us on a journey through the cruel American west and heaven is a distant memory.